The 10 Biggest Revelations From Edward Snowden's Leaks

Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Image: Barton Gellman/Getty Images

One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.

At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.

Journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian won a Pulitzer Prize for reporting based on Snowden's information.

Last year, quality supervision authorities across China handled 36,000 cases relating to violations of laws on quality standards, involving 2.3 billion yuan's ($333 million) worth of goods, Han said.

《广州市完善促进消费体制机制实施方案(2019—2020年)》印发

The upshot is that Chinese trade looks to have been surprisingly strong last month. We expect exports to continue to perform well in the coming months on the back of strong global demand.
In the past 12 months, more than 20 provinces have introduced policies to encourage students to start their own companies by allowing them to quit studying but keep their student status for two to eight years. However, many industry insiders insist that students complete their studies and work a few years first.
One explanation could be that significantly more men than women work in the industry’s best-paying fields. A third of men work in private equity orventure capital, investment banking or mergers and acquisitions, andhedge funds compared with only 19 per cent of women.
保罗·乔治,克里斯·保罗,卡梅罗·安东尼,戈登·海沃德,吉米·巴特勒,德里克·罗斯,保罗·米尔萨普,J·J·雷迪克,埃里克·布莱索,德怀特·霍华德……自去年以来,换了东家的球员名单还在不断增加。

1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records

The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 雷士照明政权变动引发武力冲突 王冬雷称吴长江涉利益输送 in America.

This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.

The uproar caused by this first story has led President Barack Obama to endorse a reform to the program, and the House of Representatives to pass the first law that tries to change it.

2. PRISM

The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.

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PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.

PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.

3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world

无论你是否认为Snapchat配得上Facebook开出的30亿美元报价,有一点确定无疑:所谓的“阅后即焚”(内容被接收数秒后自动消失)社交网络拥有广阔的市场应用空间。此外,与流行的看法相反,Snapchat传播的内容不仅仅是色情短信和限制级的自拍照片,尽管它也的确是传播这类信息的最佳平台。随着主流社交平台的内容变得越来越商品化,以Snapchat为代表的“阅后即焚”平台在某种程度上重新恢复了社交媒体本应具备的趣味性和自发性。就像现实生活中的互动交流一样——创意自由流动,一般不用担心一切事情都被记录下来留给子孙后代观瞻,传遍整个世界——SnapChat提供了一个真实的、未经过滤的交流渠道。孩子们真的很喜欢它。Facebook公司自己的首席财务官上个月已正式承认,青少年使用Facebook的次数正在下降.而据坊间传言,驻足于Snapchat的青少年数量正在呈爆炸式增长。
The ECB ended the year with a vote on December 3 to cut its deposit rate to minus 0.3 per cent and an expansion in asset purchases that leaves its quantitative easing programme at 1.46tn. The move came days before the US Federal Reserve increased interest rates for the first time since 2006, underlining the sharply divergent policies being pursued on either side of the Atlantic.
Inspired by this, researchers and scientists have been working on areas where making things small may mean big results.
expansion

Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.

4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders

U.S. President Barack Obama, right, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel are seated together at a G7 dinner in Brussels, on June 4. Their relationship has been tense since reports revealed that the NSA tapped Merkel's phone.

Businesswomen are booming in Asia: The whole region makes a strong showing, from China and Singapore to New Zealand and Thailand. Entrepreneurship is on the rise: see Zhang Xin (No. 50) , Sun Yafang (No. 77) and Solina Chau (No. 80). And Asian region women are showing their political might, from newcomer Park Geun-hye, the South Korean president (No. 11) and Burmese dissident and parliamentarian Aung San Suu Kyi (No. 29) to Australian PM Julia Gillard (No. 28) and Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra (No. 31).
Now Chinese investment in western economies is back on track to break a further record this year: during the first six weeks this year Chinese groups have announced $70bn in potential deals, although the number is highly provisional and not all such acquisitions will be completed.
Law

为了智能家居 小米申请了一项箱子外观专利

'While RMB is on the rise, currencies from some of China's competitors for tourism, such as Japan, are depreciating, meaning travel to some other Asian countries has been getting cheaper while travel to China is becoming more costly,' Jiang Yiyi said.
The Queen would have been down the stairs like a shot as soon as the aircraft came to a final halt.

The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.

Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.

5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything

XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.

6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security

Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 上半年土地出让破万亿 热点二三线楼市成交翻倍 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.

In July, the government made the first stab at regulating internet finance when 10 agencies, including the central bank, the banking regulator and the securities regulator jointly issued guidelines that provide an official definition of “internet finance” and specify which agencies are responsible for regulating which types of internet financial institutions.
2. 在原来工作岗位上呆太久了
Mr. Murray came to her with a full beard, so she was able to shape it into the thick, bushy mustache pictured here. “Bill has never worn that look before,” Ms. Hannon said, “so it was lovely to get something new.”
18 November

珠三角近半弃房者不到3年断供 广州集中在城区

n. 前进,航行速度,进展,(前后两车间的)车间时距
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Four government agencies including the commerce ministry and the central bank said in December they would apply tighter scrutiny to "irrational" outbound deals including real estate, hotels, movie theatres, entertainment assets and sports clubs.
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“Through the second half of the 20th century we had this big dispersion of trade and economic activity around the world. All this specialisation meant exports rose faster than GDP,” Mr Williams says.
“We will see a lot of headlines about [emerging market export growth] picking up in the first half of 2017,” says Bhanu Baweja, head of EM cross asset strategy at UBS, who believes EM exports will show year-on-year growth of between 8 and 13 per cent in dollar terms in the first quarter of this year, “a complete postcode away” from the negative numbers currently being reported.
v. 扛,肩负,承担,(用肩
墓地主人的身份依然是个迷。这座墓地曾经被盗过,而且墓地中没有任何的文字记录来表明这些死者的名字以及他们的职位。
另一方面,10月份工业生产者出厂价格(PPI)连续第3个月同比下降5.9%。

7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed

The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.

Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.

oDesk and Elance (now in the process of merging) are freelance marketplaces, which allow you to quickly identify, engage and hire freelancers from all over the globe. Need a website developer or content writer? Don’t hire an employee; instead, work with a freelancer. At last count, there were more than 1 million freelance contractors available via these marketplaces.
"People can be unhappy for many reasons -- from poverty to unemployment to family breakdown to physical illness," the report said. "But in any particular society, chronic mental illness is a highly influential cause of misery. If we want a happier world, we need a completely new deal on mental health."
身为欧元区较弱经济体之一的意大利,是欧盟国家中获得中国企业投资最多的。这主要归因于倍耐力(Pirelli)和中国化工(ChemChina)达成的79亿美元交易。法国排在第二位,通过旅游和基础设施行业的一系列大笔交易获得36亿美元投资。
Last year saw a series of disastrous floods hit countries worldwide, including the UK, which in December experienced its wettest month since records began in 1910.
日历一页一页地翻到了12月,一些球队是时候考虑垫底的不可避免性了。那么,哪些球队应该开始着手垫底,哪些球队还需要观望,而哪些球队应该放弃这种打算呢。Flanns 和Zillz将会就这一问题展开讨论。

8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links

When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.

Make it dangerous, this will help you keep your Watson happy.

This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."

9. NSA collects text messages

It's not just about Internet data though. The NSA, following its unofficial motto of "collecting it all," intercepts 200 million text messages every day worldwide through a program called Dishfire.

In fact, create a hard and fast rule to keep work and job searching separate. That means no sneaking out for a phone interview. No browsing job boards. No applying or networking with your work email address. "You don't watch porn at work, and you don't work on your résumé at work," Kay says. "You just don't."
3. "The Walking Dead" (3.6 million)

Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.

10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries

The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.

The Bahamas was revealed by The Intercept, Greenwald's new website, while the second was revealed by WikiLeaks, which protested The Intercept's decision to withhold the second country's name.

法国巴黎高等商学院排名第二,尽管该学院在除MBA以外的所有排名中都胜过伦敦商学院。法国巴黎高等商学院最终不敌伦敦商学院的原因是,其高管MBA课程Trium是与伦敦经济学院(London School of Economics)和纽约斯特恩商学院(Stern School of Business)合办的,因此这门课程在该项排名中的得分只有总得分的三分之一。(合办课程的商学院参与EMBA课程排名时按比例获得分值。)

Bonus: Edward Snowden's first in-person interview with an American news outlet

(H/T to the site Free Snowden, which has an extensive and detailed list of all the NSA revelations.)