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住宅用地满70年后这么办

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 三星“图谋”OLED市场 产业调整变中求稳 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

发改委:支持优质企业直接融资 房地产企业营业收入需300亿元以上

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

源于:prim(adj 整洁的;最好的;早的)
美国创作型歌手泰勒·斯威夫特位列2015全球十大美女榜第七。她擅于创作有关个人经历的叙事性歌曲。她获奖颇丰,包括七项格莱美奖、16项全美音乐奖、11项美国年度乡村音乐奖、八项美国乡村音乐学院奖、34项公告牌音乐奖和一项全英音乐奖。她的作词,颇受纳什维尔词曲作家协会和作曲家名人堂的赞赏。截止2015年初,斯威夫特的专辑销量已超4000万,单曲下载量也逾1.3亿次,成为全球数字唱片销量最高的五位音乐人之一。
社交网络平台,包括微博和手机应用微信,被证明是网红扩大交流的最好工具,使其可以创造出一种囊括广告、电子商务和粉丝的行业。
中国的旅游业官员正力图在2014年扭转入境游客减少的情况,专家认为,如果能对其过时的旅行团进行改进并降低票价,这一计划就有可能实现。
Under the Skin is just so visually free and uninhibited that there is an intense dark, destructive sexiness in everything about it – quite apart from the hilarious, bizarre, mesmeric eroticism of the film itself. It is a work of subcutaneous potency. It gets under your skin.
James Bond Themes 1. "Goldfinger" by Shirley Bassey
全国具有大学教育程度的人口达17093万人,每10万人中受过高等教育的人口已由2010年的8930人上升至2015年的12445人。此外,我国上过高中的人数也有所增长,而只完成低水平教育的人数则有所下降。

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大隅在自噬作用上的研究成果,为帕金森病、糖尿病等常见疾病的治疗带来了一线希望。
General Motors is helping fuel the improved jobs outlook in the Grand Canyon State. In March, the automaker announced plans to build the company’s fourth Information Technology Innovation Center in Phoenix suburb Chandler. GM is expected to hire 1, 000 workers, mainly consisting of software developers, database administrators and systems analysts for the new center. “The greater Phoenix area is a fantastic hub of emerging technical talent – from university graduates to working professionals, ” said GM CIO Randy Mott in a release announcing the move.
Dachis says: The end of year iPhone 5 and iPad Mini releases overcame early controversies in overseas manufacturing and any lingering effects from the death of Steve Jobs to make Apple the biggest mover of the year.
“但我让他在碰巧看了一眼报纸时,看到上面一篇文章提醒他吸烟会致癌。

Footnotes

  • LED企业营销渠道论:看大咖们如何出招
  • 全国工商联汽车经销商会数据显示,自2014年进口现代中国经销商网络已经缩减了一半。

But when he gave us his long-gestating free adaptation of Michel Faber’s novel Under the Skin, the result really was gasp-inducing: hilarious, disturbing, audacious. No less an A-lister than Scarlett Johansson plays an alien in human form who roams the streets and shopping malls of Glasgow. Perfectly genuine footage of real-life passersby is shown as the incognito Johansson impassively sizes up these earthlings for their calorific value. Then actors will step out of the crowd for their scenes with the great seducer. She takes them back to her place: a mysterious dark cavern in which, in an erotic trance, they submit to being imprisoned and farmed for their meat – and perhaps, who knows, for their very soul.
节目23 《直通春晚》①《山路十八弯》(表演者:阿普萨萨)②《我是一只小小鸟》(表演者:许艺娜)③《我爱你中国》(表演者:平安)
这些各不相同的胡子是设计师弗朗西丝·汉农(Frances Hannon)设计的,在安德森的多部电影中(比如《青春年少》[Rushmore]和《水中生活》[The Life Aquatic With Steve Zissou]),她都为比尔·默里(Bill Murray)设计了面部毛发。这次,她让该片的很多演员留起胡子,供她修剪成任何想要的形状。
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It is a timely warning. His findings, he writes, “point to a heightened risk of emerging market crises in the coming years as the Fed continues to normalise interest rates”.
近日公布的一份调查结果显示,清华大学毕业生的平均薪酬在全国高校毕业生中最高。

公摊有必要 关键要明晰

References

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